Side Effects Data

User guidelines for the Plant Protection Products Effects Database (the database)

This database offers valuable information and general guidance on the effect of plant protection products (PPP) on natural enemies and natural pollinators. If you have any doubts or difficulty in interpreting information, please consult your advisor. Before using a PPP, please ensure it is authorized for your particular use case, carefully read the label and respect dose and application guidelines.

PPP effects on Natural Enemies 

PPP can impact natural enemies directly, causing their death, preventing their emergence from eggs or pupae, or indirectly, affecting their fertility, molting, or repelling them. We consider both direct and indirect effects when assessing side effects. The assessment is based on a single application of the PPP at the approved dose. Using a higher dose or repeated applications may have more substantial effects on natural enemies and pollinators. Keep in mind that the product you use might have a different formulation or a different concentration of the active substance compared to the tested product. Therefore, the effects may vary. 

We classify the effects of PPP’s on natural enemies based on the following categories defined by the IOBC (International Organisation for Biological and Integrated Control), reflecting the extent of impact on the natural enemy's capacity: 

Class 1 – Harmless < 25% reduction 
Class 2 – Slightly harmful  25 - 50% reduction 
Class 3 – Moderately harmful 50 - 75% reduction 
Class 4 - Harmful > 75% reduction

We use the following symbols to denote the effect of the PPP on the mortality or reduced control capacity of natural enemies:

Residual effect of PPP’s (Persistence)

These persistence assessments primarily apply to conditions in North-Western European greenhouse crops. Under warmer and brighter conditions, persistence is generally shorter, and outdoor crops may be influenced by precipitation. In the case of repeated applications and/or combined applications with additional PPP’s, the persistence may be longer. If no data (-) is available, the persistence is unknown.

PPP effects on Bumblebees 

All results regarding side effects on bumblebees pertain to Bombus terrestris unless other species are expressly mentioned. Effects on other bumblebee species may vary. 

Three categories guide the use of PPP concerning bumblebees:

  • No action required
    Recommendations: you can apply the agent without specific precautions.

  • Cover and protect the hive before treatment
    Recommendations: close the hive's flight hole and cover it before pesticide application. After treating the crop, remove the cover and reopen the flight hole. Exercise caution with low-volume applications, as the product can still enter the hives through ventilation.

  • Do not use with bumblebees
    This agent should not be used alongside bumblebees.

If no information is provided, the effects are unknown.

Residual Effect (Persistence)

Residues of PPP’s can have a harmful effect on natural enemies for a period after application. This persistence is measured in weeks during which the PPP remains detrimental. Only after the indicated period the introduction or reintroduction of the concerned natural enemy may be successful. The indicated period applies to a single application at the labelled dose.

The residual effect of a PPP on bumblebees is indicated in the number of days during which bumblebees cannot be active in the greenhouse. Bumblebees can be reintroduced once the specified period has passed, and the residue has broken down sufficiently. Please note that closing or covering bumblebee hives for more than three days, can affect pollination.

Your feedback is valuable to us

This database is regularly updated. If you have questions about missing data or experiences that differ from the information in the database, please email us at 

Data resources

The data in this database is derived from various sources, including trials conducted by Biobest, experiences of Biobest employees  research results from the IOBC working group 'Pesticides and Beneficial organisms,' reports from research institutes (national and international), and other sources such as the websites of the IOBC or IPM Impact, and pesticide producers.

Liability Disclaimer

  • General information: The information available in the database is intended for general information purposes only and should not be considered as specific, professional advice in your particular circumstances. 
  • Scope: the database intends to provide information with respect to the effect of PPP’s on natural enemies and natural pollinators, not on humans.
  • No warranty, no guarantee of results: As the conditions and use of PPP’s are beyond Biobest's control, we cannot guarantee specific results or accept liability for any adverse consequences resulting from using the data in this database. Results from this database should therefore be seen as an indication and the use of information on this database is at the user’s own risk. The use of PPP’s within the statutory regulations is the responsibility of the user.
  • Completeness of information: Biobest provides data to the best of its knowledge on the date of release of the database regarding side effects of PPP’s on natural enemies and pollinators. However, Biobest does not warrant or guarantee accuracy, completeness or intended use and Biobest has no obligation to update the information on this database. The absence of an effect classification or persistency data of a chemical agent on a natural enemy or pollinator merely means that effect or persistence is unknown and should not be interpreted as an absence of any effect or persistency impact on that natural enemy or pollinator. The persistence assessments in this database primarily apply to conditions in North-Western European greenhouse crops and for a single and stand-alone application of the PPP. Under warmer and brighter conditions, persistence is generally shorter, and outdoor crops may be influenced by precipitation. Persistence may be longer in case of repeated applications or in combination with application of other PPP’s.
  • Changes and updates: Biobest has no obligation to update this database. Biobest may however update or modify information on this database without prior notice. It the user’s responsibility to stay informed of changes.
  • Governing law: this disclaimer is governed by Belgian law. Any disputes arising out of or in connection with this disclaimer shall be subject to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of Antwerp, division of Turnhout, Belgium.